CCL Advanced Search Examples

CCL Advanced Search lets you create complex search expressions. A search expression is composed of at least one search term. It might also include index abbreviations and search operators (See Search Tips for more information on search operators). A search expression might also contain one or more result sets from your Previous Searches list, designated R1, R2, and so on.

Hint: It's often best to perform compound searches one step at a time and then to combine the result sets. This assures you that each part of the search is working. Searching separately for each part of a compound search also lets you take advantage of browsing any indexes that allow it.

Here are some examples of search expressions. The database(s) you are currently searching may or may not be set up with these particular indexes, but the principle is the same.

clothing and child* labo!r
Searches the default (keyword) index for articles in which clothing occurs and in which words that begin with child (probably child and children) and either labor or labour occur within two words of each other in either direction
su memory and re ref
Searches for articles indexed under subjects in which memory occurs but only from refereed (peer-reviewed) journals
(wom?n or female!) and education
Searches using the default (keyword) index for records in which either woman, women, female, or females occurs and in which education also occurs. The wildcards stand for different numbers of letters. The nesting operators (parentheses) cause the or operation to be performed before the and (which normally would be performed first and produce a different result). See Search Tips for more information on wildcards and nesting operators.
ti market w1 watch
Searches for titles (actually the annotation) containing the phrase "market watch." The proximity operator w1 indicates the direction (forward) and the number of words apart (one, meaning no intervening words). Note that the search ti market watch would also find occurrences of a phrase such as "watch the market." See Search Tips for more information on wildcards and proximity operators.
ti book w1 reviews and au bouchard
Searches for articles in which book is immediately followed by review in the title (actually the annotation) and the author of which is named Bouchard (alone or as part of a hyphenated name).
da since june 1997
Searches using the publication date index for articles published after June 1997

Note: Any terms following a logical operator (and/or/not) will be searched using the initial index if an additional index is not specified. For example, entering ke education and sept 2006 will search the keyword (ke) index for both education AND sept 2006 and may result in no matching citations. Whereas entering ke education and da sept 2006 will search the keyword (ke) index for education and search the date (da) index for sept 2006.

You can also use result sets to combine and refine prior searches.